Yes, as a patient I have experienced this many times. Mostly from PCPs and ER docs. The time that stands out in my memory the most is when I went to the ER for shortness of breath, racing heart, confusion, hot flashes, etc. When asked if I ever had anxiety before, I said yes, and they told me I was having a severe panic attack and to go home. I told them I did not feel anxious, and didn't think I was having a panick attack, that I had never had one before, but the Doc insisted that's what it was. After this same thing happened again a few days later, I remembered that just prior to both ER trips, I had taken Aspirin. I also remembered that I had been getting hives from using my face wash. I was able to discover on my own that I was having an allergic reaction to Aspirin.
Another time, At my PCP, I mentioned some joint pain from various injuries and the Doc said "lets test you for RA!" I said, "actually, I am pretty aware of the symptoms of RA, and pretty certain I DON'T have that. Did you even listen to my symptoms?"
These things are not nearly as serious as the scenario you described. But if clinicians are making a habit out of assuming and not truly listening, then serious consequences are far more likely to occur.
Since I am well aware of this phenomenon among HCPs, let's hope that when I am in the position to care for a patient or client, I DO LISTEN.
Thanks for posting!